My first acknowledgement is Prof. Pete Stollery. Thank you for your continued support and guidance that you have given me throughout my many years at Aberdeen University. There is a pint with your name on it at the end of this. 

Additional thanks to my secondary supervisor, Dr. Suk-Jun Kim, for the discussions that sparked some of the key ideas for this PhD. 

Thank you to the University of Aberdeen Elphinstone Scholarship who funded this PhD. 

I also would like to thank my parents, Judith and Andrew, and my close family for their love and support. Yes, that is the end. Yes, I will get a real job now. Promise.

Thank you to all of my friends. There are too many of you who helped me but special thanks go to Scott, Hunter, Emma, and Gavin for keeping me sane.

And one last thank you to some of my collaborative partners of the past three years: Mark, Amy, and Lise.