Intersection between Domestic Violence and International Parental Child Abduction: Protection of Abducting Mothers in Return Proceedings
The focus of the article is on the intersection between domestic violence and parental child abduction, in particular, the interpretation of the Article 13(1)(b) ‘grave risk of harm’ defence in cases involving allegations of domestic violence by the abducting mother against the left-behind father, and on the protection of such abducting mothers in return proceedings. The content of the article is divided into two substantive parts. The first part explores the courts’ approach to the grave risk of harm exception to return in circumstances where allegations of domestic violence have been raised. The second part of the article examines the courts’ approach to protective measures, including undertakings, in child abduction cases involving allegations of domestic violence. The article engages extensively with the work of the Hague Conference on Private International Law and the EU in the area of international parental child abduction, as inter alia, it explores the problem of effectiveness of protective measures with reference to the 1996 Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children and the Regulation 606/2013 on mutual recognition of protection measures in civil matters.